Monday, February 3, 2020

Market Analysis and Prospects for Timber Buildings in The Developing Essay

Market Analysis and Prospects for Timber Buildings in The Developing World - Essay Example The rapid growth in industrialization, urbanization and civilization brought many problems by which not only human beings but also all the other livening things are suffering and our entire planet has come in danger. It has been now the major priority to save our planet from being deteriorated. In such a situation before creating anything the environmental factor is taken into consideration. Construction line is also not at all exceptional. Today as all of us are acquainted with the drawbacks of the concrete or steel buildings, it has become necessary to think the other alternatives which the environment also will accept and it won’t be harmful to the environment. The research paper aims at investigating how beneficial it will be to use the timber in constructing the buildings. The objective of this research therefore is to study different benefits of using timber in building material. It is also the aim of this research to find out the profitability in using timber for constructing the buildings and houses in rural and urban areas in developing world. For this the scientific, ecological benefits are analysed and the future market of timber buildings is also focussed. The project represents a significant portion of the final year work of a degree programme. Progress during the year and the final report are both used as part of the assessment process. For this 150 hours have been spend in research and preparation of the final report. The topic for the research project is the â€Å"Market Analysis and Prospects of Timber Buildings in Developing World.† Timber has been an ideal material for building. Historically it is proved that wood has an inherent strength and durability and that is why it is an ideal material for building. Today when the architects and engineers plan to build the buildings they look at timber as their preference. In ancient time the man used to build the houses made by the Lignocelluloses

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Construction of School Building Project Proposal

Construction of School Building Project Proposal 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Tanzania after realizing the fact that education is a sure means towards the improvement of the countrys economy; it formulated the Education and Training Policy year 1995 which integrated in the formal school system what was called. This is for children aged between 3 years and 6years. The major objective is to introduce pre-schools in every primary school. The government wants these pre-schools to be run by local governments, private institutions and individuals to build and operate pre-schools. The major objective of initiating per-schools is to bring up children by promoting and enriching the experiences so far acquired by the children from community and family in such areas as religion, languages, culture, health care etc. At primary and secondary school levels the government aims at improving access and enrolment levels due to the fact that in the past the education system was characterized by high drop-out rates mainly due to poor teaching methods by Universal Primary Education (UPE) teachers who were themselves failures at primary school levels. The policy was passed by the government after realizing the fact that early childhood education leaves an imprint in the childs mind and it is a significant factor in the mental and social development of children. The government puts stress on this type of education in its effort to develop the countrys human resources. It is from this need that Agape Love Education Centre builds its foundation to explore this opportunity by coming up with a vision of setting up the Centre for early childhood to access which will help to prevent stunted cognitive development of child and is reputed for facilitating better future performance in school. Agape Love Education Centre will offer pre-primary education, primary education and secondary education. Secondary education will consist of ordinary level and high school level. It is estimated that first phase of its construction will be done in the first five years. 2.0 INTRODUCTION The Ministry of Education Brief overview According to Tanzania Education and Training policy (1995), the United Republic of Tanzania has realized that quality education is the pillar of national development, for it is through education that the nation obtains skilled manpower to serve in various sector in the nations economy.   It is through quality education Tanzania will be able to create a strong and competitive economy which can effectively cope with the challenges of development and which can also easily and confidently adapt to the changing market and technological conditions in the region and global economy. The structure of the Formal Education and Training System in Tanzania constitutes two (2) years of pre-primary education, seven (7) years of primary education, four (4) years of Junior Secondary (Ordinary Level), two (2) years of Senior Secondary (Advanced Level) and up to three (3) or more years of Tertiary Education.   In short 2:7:4:2:3. Specifically, the education system has three (3) levels, namely: Basic, Secondary and Tertiary Levels. The Scope of the project proposal document This project proposal is about education centre construction of which will be known as Agape Love Education Centre. Upon completion, it will have pre-primary education, primary education and secondary education. Secondary education will consist of ordinary level and high school level. The official language will be English, which will be used at all levels. As mentioned earlier, the scope of this project proposal will be to construct the education centre within five years, whereby pre-primary school and primary school will start simultaneously in one year while building construction will be progressing. Ordinary secondary school is planned to commence in year three and advanced level in year four. The general goal of this school is to have a school centre which will offer education of high quality basing on Tanzania Ministry of Education curriculum. This centre will provide accommodation to those who are coming from a distant area and also provide tea as well as lunch to those who stay at home. The education centre has its plan in future to have branches in different regions depending on availability of fund as it is in the process of requesting grants from the government. This is because Tanzania has made progress in making education as practical and market oriented as possible guided by the government policy of education for self reliance. The subject combinations are tailored towards what is offered in tertiary and higher education THE PROJECT PROPOSAL OUTLINE Basic data summary of the intended project Rationale of the project Background analysis. The relevance of national policies Project appraisal and sensitivity analysis Implementation logical frame Project monitoring and evaluation Risk analysis Conclusion List of reference Annexes BASIC DATA SUMMARY 4.1 Institution Name The name of this project proposal is known as, AGAPE LOVE EDUCATION CENTRE (ALEC). 4.2 Contact name and post For the progress of this project contact Dr. Mwinamila Senior who is the Managing Director of this Centre. 4.3 Project name The project name is EDUCATION CENTRE CONSTRUCTION. 4.4 Project location The project will be located at BUSHUSHU VILLAGE IN .SHINYANGA MUNICIPALITY Project buildings will be constructed at Bushushu Village which is situated five (5) kilometres from Shinyanga Municipality and about one (1) kilometre from Old Shinyanga road along Kahama Shinyanga Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (KASHWASA) Offices. Electricity from the main grid at Shinyanga rural passes through the village and is about five hundred (500) meters from the site where the school buildings will be constructed. Piped water from the main pipe to Shinyanga municipal is available at the village extension pipe to the school. The water table in the area is very high and the school Administration may sink one or two wells to supplement the schools water supply. Bushushu village is within Kambarage ward, Shinyanga Rural District in Shinyanga Municipal. 4.5 Project Area The total area made available to Agape Love Education Centre is about eight (8) hectares and this will be used for the constructions of buildings, basketball, netball court, football pitch, short put, high jump, long green areas and gardens land is not a problem around the area and if the school will need more land it will have to apply for such land and it will not be difficult at all to be allocated such land. 4.6 Project summary ` 4.6.1 Problem statement The project is in line with government efforts to establish as many pre-schools, primary schools and secondary schools as possible so that many children get access to education. Quality basic education is very important to even the poor children. People of Tanzania constitutes empowerment; and it is one of the tools that will empower the country in different aspects of the war against poverty (Refer to Education and Training policy of 1995) 4.6.2 Priority need The priority need of this project proposal is to have an education institution which will join hand with the ministry of educations effort of having a nation with high level of education at all levels; a nation which produces the quality and quantity of educated people sufficiently equipped with the requisite knowledge to solve the societys problems in order to meet the challenges of development and attain competitiveness at regional and global at large at affordable costs. 4.6.3 Project objectives `This project proposal has two main objectives as mentioned here under: To respond to the needs of a rapidly growing business and education sector in Shinyanga municipality by producing the quality and quantity of educated people sufficiently equipped with the requisite knowledge to solve the societys problems in order to meet the challenges of development and attain competitiveness at regional and global at large at affordable costs. The following objectives will be implemented after getting approval from the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training. . The School will provide subsidized healthy meals daily to children attending this Centre School. This Centre will continue to raise funds for running the operation of the school by requesting sponsorship for educating the children attending this centre. 4.6.4 Target group The target groups of this project proposal are: The children who currently attend normal Kindergarten, Primary School and Secondary school, as well as the children living in Shinyanga community who need to improve their education level; The teachers who instruct the children according to the Syllabus provided by the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training; The supporting administrative and ancillary staff who will facilitate the operation of the school. Parents and guardians in the Shinyanga community who are interested in giving their children the opportunity of education at this education centre. 4.6.5 Project results This project is planned to be constructed at a minimum low cost so as to enable Tanzania community afford to pay the required fees. Construction will be conducted in three phases as follows: Phase one will start in year one, focusing on construction of pre- primary school and other necessary planned buildings. Phase two will follow year two for aiming for construction of primary school class rooms with other necessary planned buildings and phase three will start year four for construction of secondary school class rooms. 4.6.6 Key project activities Key project of Centre will include field activities, building design and construction supervision. All of which will be undertaken by M/s JKM MULTI-CONSULT TANZANIA LTD as a consultant to ensure that costs are not escalated. Some other activities will include: title Deed follow – up, topographical survey, master plan preparation. It will also involve location position of buildings. Streets, green areas, open spaces, play grounds etc. Location positioning of storm water, foul water, sewage system in relation to septic tank and sock pits. Setting out dimensions will involve building lines, setbacks and detailed dimensions between one building and the other. Architectural designs and preliminary stages stage 1 The drawing at this stage will have no detailed dimensions, they will just show schedules of accommodation for ease of getting rough estimated figures of the costs of the project. Working drawing –stage 2 These are details design for construction purposes and preparation of bills of quantities. Engineering design- these are of two types. Structural engineers designs- these are applicable for stored building and are used for soil investigation and foundation engineering. Electrical engineering drawings- these show the layout of electrical fitting and appliances especially for laboratories, computers etc Bills of quantities- these showing detailed breakdowns of materials required for every building and these may be used as tender documents in cases of building contracts. Landscaping Architecture and environmental control- this will ensure beautiful and attractive surroundings through the planting of flower gardens and shade trees. Items (3) through to (10) are some of the activities and services to be performed or carried out by the consultants and will be charged ten percent (10%) of estimated total construction costs as follows:- 4.6.7 Summary of areas built up 1. Secondary School 9,337.0 M2 2. Local Church 1,336.0 M2 3. Primary School 7,306.0 M2 4. Sports Arena 21,578.9 M2 Cost estimates per area. Based upon Unit Cost Method per m2, the following rates have been used:- (i) Secondary School @ Tshs 235,000/= per m2 (ii) Local Church @ Tshs 250,000/= per m2 (iii) Primary School @ Tshs 235,000/= per m2 (iv) Sports Arena @ Tshs 15,000/= per m2 Value per area. 1. Secondary School 2,194,195,000 Tshs 2. Local Church 334,000,000 Tshs 3. Primary School 1,716,910,000 Tshs 4. Sports Arena 323,683,500 Tshs Total 4,568,788,500 Tshs Add: 30% Infrastructures 1,507,700,205.00 10% Consultancy Fees 456,878,850.00 Total Construction Costs Shs 6,533,367,555.00 Other operational costs 1,031,632,445.00 Grand Total Costs 7,565,000,000.00 4.6.8 Project Feasibility study This covers all aspects of the project, describing in details all activities and finances involved. (Refer Annex No. I) 4.6.9 Project budgets In our project this will be our projection of source of income and our plan how are we going to spend this limited resources as expenses over a specified period of time. (Refer Annex No.1) 4.6.10 Project duration The project proposal duration will be for five years which will be preceded with final evaluations that will be conducted at the end of five years. This evaluation intends to make an extensive review of the whole project to see its sustainability for its the long run. 5.0 PROJECT RATIONALE 5.1 Background 5.1.1 Involvement and Experience The project will involve different stakeholders in the whole process of construction aiming to assist its implementations. These will include: Tanzania Building Agency for examining the Architectural designs part of the whole project. Tanzania Ministry of Education for monitoring the whole project and issue license. M/s JKM Multi-Consult Tanzania Ltd a consultant firm for supervision of the project. The society of Shinyanga municipality as stake holders for their children. The sponsors from Postal Bank Tanzania LTD Project team 5.1.2 Experience M/S JKM MULTI-CONSULT TANZANIA LDT. This is a consultant firm whose offices are situated at Kibaha Mailimoja. It is a new firm recently registered with the registrar of companies under the Companies Ordinance (cap 212), but its staffs are backed up with vast experience in the building design and construction industry as well as projects planning; project appraisal and financial management acquired while working with other firm. 5.1.3 Consultation and participation The project has also involved some experts especially for works like, conducting project feasibility study, design and drawings, buildings constructions, risk analysis, project evaluation etc. For instance, buildings constructions have been undertaken by M/S JKM MULTI-CONSULT TANZANIA LTD. This is a firm of consults whose offices are situated at Kibaha Mailimoja. It is a new firm recently registered with the registrar of companies under the Companies Ordinance (cap 212), but its staffs are backed up with vast experience in the building design and construction industry as well as projects planning; project appraisal and financial management acquired while working with other firm:- 5.1.4 Policies or development strategy This school centre is aiming to be the leading centre academically, socially, environmentally in the country. For this centre to meet these goals some policies and strategies have been put in place. Some of them include: to recruit skilled and experienced teaching staff and non teaching staff, to have in job training plan for all workers, to motivate all workers whose performance in every speciality will be excellent and to continue revising different policies wherever possible for the purpose of improvement etc. 5.1.5 Project approach 5.1.5.1 Goals The project goal is mainly for the construction of buildings for the pre-school, primary school and secondary school for the purpose of providing education. The buildings will cater for learning and boarding requirement of all pupils and students; plus the accommodation requirements of the teachers other school staff. The students and pupils physical fitness requirements will be met by having a sports arena in the school and grounds. ` 5.1.5.2 Objective and output The main objective is to respond to the needs of a rapidly growing business and education sector in Shinyanga municipality by producing the quality and quantity of educated people sufficiently equipped with the requisite knowledge to solve the societys problems in order to meet the challenges of development and attain competitiveness at regional and global at large at affordable costs. This will be met by having Agape Love Education Centre in place. 5.1.5.3 Main activities The main activities and cost estimate involved are summarized below as:- Project Capital Costs. Project costs are divided into various types namely: investment costs which fall into several categories: Buildings construction costs These are costs incurred in the construction of school buildings and infrastructure. Total construction costs T.shs 4,568,788,500/= Add: infrastructure 30% T. shs 1,507,700,205/= Add: 10% consultancy fees T. shs 456,878,850/= Total costs T. shs 6,533,367,555/= Office Furniture and equipment costs. These are furniture and equipment which will be purchased to furnish the schools. Offices furnish and equipment will be purchased in phases as more classes and offices are constructing red to completion. No definite phasing has been put in place because the phasing will depend on availability of funds. Total costs to purchase furniture and equipment stand at T. shs 168,930,000/=. Laboratory Equipment costs Every secondary school worth the name must have facilities for laboratories where laboratory equipments are a necessity. Agape Love Education Secondary school will have Biology laboratory, Physics laboratory and Chemistry laboratory which will be equipped appropriately. Biology laboratory equipment T.shs 12,000,000/= Chemistry laboratory equipment T.shs 18,000,000/= Physics laboratory equipment T.shs 20,000,000/= Total costs T.shs 50,000,000/= Purchase of school Van 31/4 tons A van will have to be bought for the school so as to cater for all transport requirements of the school. Purchase of Van 31/4 tons year five will cost T.shs 22,000,000/= Purchases of washing machine This will cater for washing all the school bed sheets etc T.shs 693,500/= Other costs are for the purchase of furniture and Equipment estimated at TSH 168,930,000/= Laboratory equipment for Physics, Chemistry and Biology laboratories will cost about TSH 50,000,000/= Total Capital costs Shs. 6,807,105,985/= 6.0 PROJECT APPARAISAL AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS 6.1 Project Appraisal   Business dictionary defined project appraisal as a systematic and comprehensive review of the economic, environmental, financial, social, and technical and other such aspects of a project to determine if it will meet its objectives. 6.2 Operational necessity Every project proposal should pass through this criterion for appraisal. In our education centre, this analysis will assist to determine the merit and acceptability of our school centre in accordance with under laid established criteria. This will be the final step before our project is accepted for financing. It helps us know that our project is feasible against the situation on the ground that the objectives set remain appropriate and that costs are reasonable. 6.3Project appraisal methods 6.3.1Social appraisal A social appraisal will help us review the project design and the process of project identification by implementing and monitoring its progress, from a social perspective. Particular attention will be paid to the likely impact of the project on different stakeholders, their opportunities for participation, and the projects contribution to poverty reduction. 6.3.2 Institutional appraisal This will help us ensures that the supporting institutions are in place and that they can operate effectively within the existing legislative and policy environment. This project has identified opportunities for institutional strengthening and capacity building at a relative cost. 6.3.3 Economic and financial appraisal This helped our project to make an analysis of economic soundness of the project and quantification and valuation of costs and benefits that ensured our financial viability. 6.3.4 Environmental appraisal The plan was made to invite the government specialists in environmental appraisal Environmental Assessment (EA) will assist us to meet one of our goals of having a school centre with a conducive academic environment. Most countries have environment impact assessment (EIA) policy and supporting legislation. Traditionally, EIA will be designed to operate at our project level to help us identify impacts and mitigation measures for this project. 6.3.5 Technical appraisal Technically, this project is going to be feasible as Shinyanga municipal is highly populated. During the time of conducting technical appraisal, a comprehensive review of all technical aspects of the project such as rendering judgment on merits of technical proposals and operating costs will be clearly seen. Some of a checklist that will be used is: To prove or test the technology that will be used to implement the entire tasks. To have a list of equipment and machinery to be installed with their cost and specifications. To know the equipment capacity and whether it is as per requirement etc. 6.3.5 Project Sensitivity analysis Sensitivity analysis will be done in our project to help us determine which variables have the most potential to affect this project. These variables include: task duration,  Ã‚   task start time, and success rate and costs risks. 7.0 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PLAN Activity plan 7.1.1Project activities Here under are estimated activities that will be carried out in a specified estimated period of time. S/NO Activities Year 1 Year2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 1 Fund solicitation 2 Buildings constructions 3 Purchase of office furniture 4 Laboratory equipment 5 Purchase of school van 6 Pupils registration 7 Risk analysis 8 Monitoring and evaluation 9 Budget preparation 10 School registration process 11 Recruitment of non and teaching staff 7.1.2 Management arrangement 7.1.2.1 Project personnel In every project human resource is very important to ensure that tasks are performed as planned. This includes project manager and project team. 7.1.2.1Individual roles In our project, every project team member will have a certain role assigned to perform at a specified period of time so as to accomplish our goal. 7.1.2.2 Communication mechanisms In our project this mechanism will help Create a document showing the needs to be kept informed about the project and how they will receive the information. The most common mechanism is a weekly or monthly progress report, describing how the project is performing, milestones achieved and work planned for the next period. 7.1.2.3 Project timing and scheduling In carrying out project tasks resources have been allocated to meet activities scheduled so as meet the allocated time. This ha been helped us to determine schedule dates on which activities should be performed this goes hand by hand with resource scheduling. This involves many considerations such as logistics and customer needs. 7.1.2.4 Project budget According to Dr. Magigi Mwaitete lecture notice, a budget is a financial plan that is prepared and approved prior to the budget period and may show income, expenditure and the capital to be employed. A budget may be for the business as a whole departments function such as sales and production. 7.1.2.5 Project financial report 7.1.2.5.1 Balance sheet Atrill McLaney (2008) defined a balance sheet as a statement of financial position that show the assets of a business and the claims on those assets (Refer Table 6) 7.1.2.5.2 Income statement According to Atrill McLaney (2008) Income statement is a statement that measures and reports the profit or loss the business has generated during a period. It is derived by deducting from total revenue for a period, the total expenses associated with that revenue. (Refer Table 7) 7.1.2.5.3 Cash flow statement According to Burke (2008) Cash flow statement is a document which models the flow of money in and out of the project reported in a monthly basis. (Refer Table 5) 7.1.2.6 Project monitoring and evaluation 7.1.2.6.1 Monitoring According to Choudhury S (2004) monitoring is referred to as checking how much has been done and what needs to be done for accomplishments of the project tasks. 7.1.2.6.2 Evaluation Ngailo (2007) defined project evaluation as systematic investigative information that help determine whether the project is proceeding as planned and is meeting the stated programme goals and project objectives according to the proposed timeline. 8.0 PROJECT RISK ANALYSIS 8.1 Rationale of project risks analysis According to Dr. Magigi Mwaitete Lacture notice. a risk is defined as an uncertain event which should it occur, will have an effect on the project meeting its objectives. The rationale of project risk analysis is to reduce the probability and impact of threats and to increase the probability of opportunities and/or their positive impact. 8.2 Typical source of project risks In most likely any project may be faced by some of these risks: Legal (patents and lawsuits), changes in technology (does your software project need to support Windows Vista?), natural hazards and conditions (have you seen the latest volcano news?), eenvironmental (does a protected or rare species lie in your freeway path?) 8.3 Countermeasures for project risks In our project we have looked at this part critically from the planning stage. Under this part we carried out the quantitative analysis by involving different experts brainstorming with them, and consulting other skilled people to ensure that we review a history of our project where necessary to make the proper judgments. As a result we listed some risks prioritized by probability and impact for us to avoid, ignore, or accommodate different impacts likely to happen. 9.0 CONCLUSION The Agape Love Education Center continues to demonstrate its commitment to the development of Shinyanga region by submitting this five year project proposal document for approval and in so doing it continues to fulfil one of the objectives of the Ministry of Education and Vocation Training of participating in the development of the population of Shinyanga region and the rest of the regions. The Agape School centre aims to make many children in the Shinyanga community for the coming five years feel happy by providing a high standard of education in particular for pre-school, primary school, secondary school, and high school. Construction of School Building Project Proposal Construction of School Building Project Proposal 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Tanzania after realizing the fact that education is a sure means towards the improvement of the countrys economy; it formulated the Education and Training Policy year 1995 which integrated in the formal school system what was called. This is for children aged between 3 years and 6years. The major objective is to introduce pre-schools in every primary school. The government wants these pre-schools to be run by local governments, private institutions and individuals to build and operate pre-schools. The major objective of initiating per-schools is to bring up children by promoting and enriching the experiences so far acquired by the children from community and family in such areas as religion, languages, culture, health care etc. At primary and secondary school levels the government aims at improving access and enrolment levels due to the fact that in the past the education system was characterized by high drop-out rates mainly due to poor teaching methods by Universal Primary Education (UPE) teachers who were themselves failures at primary school levels. The policy was passed by the government after realizing the fact that early childhood education leaves an imprint in the childs mind and it is a significant factor in the mental and social development of children. The government puts stress on this type of education in its effort to develop the countrys human resources. It is from this need that Agape Love Education Centre builds its foundation to explore this opportunity by coming up with a vision of setting up the Centre for early childhood to access which will help to prevent stunted cognitive development of child and is reputed for facilitating better future performance in school. Agape Love Education Centre will offer pre-primary education, primary education and secondary education. Secondary education will consist of ordinary level and high school level. It is estimated that first phase of its construction will be done in the first five years. 2.0 INTRODUCTION The Ministry of Education Brief overview According to Tanzania Education and Training policy (1995), the United Republic of Tanzania has realized that quality education is the pillar of national development, for it is through education that the nation obtains skilled manpower to serve in various sector in the nations economy.   It is through quality education Tanzania will be able to create a strong and competitive economy which can effectively cope with the challenges of development and which can also easily and confidently adapt to the changing market and technological conditions in the region and global economy. The structure of the Formal Education and Training System in Tanzania constitutes two (2) years of pre-primary education, seven (7) years of primary education, four (4) years of Junior Secondary (Ordinary Level), two (2) years of Senior Secondary (Advanced Level) and up to three (3) or more years of Tertiary Education.   In short 2:7:4:2:3. Specifically, the education system has three (3) levels, namely: Basic, Secondary and Tertiary Levels. The Scope of the project proposal document This project proposal is about education centre construction of which will be known as Agape Love Education Centre. Upon completion, it will have pre-primary education, primary education and secondary education. Secondary education will consist of ordinary level and high school level. The official language will be English, which will be used at all levels. As mentioned earlier, the scope of this project proposal will be to construct the education centre within five years, whereby pre-primary school and primary school will start simultaneously in one year while building construction will be progressing. Ordinary secondary school is planned to commence in year three and advanced level in year four. The general goal of this school is to have a school centre which will offer education of high quality basing on Tanzania Ministry of Education curriculum. This centre will provide accommodation to those who are coming from a distant area and also provide tea as well as lunch to those who stay at home. The education centre has its plan in future to have branches in different regions depending on availability of fund as it is in the process of requesting grants from the government. This is because Tanzania has made progress in making education as practical and market oriented as possible guided by the government policy of education for self reliance. The subject combinations are tailored towards what is offered in tertiary and higher education THE PROJECT PROPOSAL OUTLINE Basic data summary of the intended project Rationale of the project Background analysis. The relevance of national policies Project appraisal and sensitivity analysis Implementation logical frame Project monitoring and evaluation Risk analysis Conclusion List of reference Annexes BASIC DATA SUMMARY 4.1 Institution Name The name of this project proposal is known as, AGAPE LOVE EDUCATION CENTRE (ALEC). 4.2 Contact name and post For the progress of this project contact Dr. Mwinamila Senior who is the Managing Director of this Centre. 4.3 Project name The project name is EDUCATION CENTRE CONSTRUCTION. 4.4 Project location The project will be located at BUSHUSHU VILLAGE IN .SHINYANGA MUNICIPALITY Project buildings will be constructed at Bushushu Village which is situated five (5) kilometres from Shinyanga Municipality and about one (1) kilometre from Old Shinyanga road along Kahama Shinyanga Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (KASHWASA) Offices. Electricity from the main grid at Shinyanga rural passes through the village and is about five hundred (500) meters from the site where the school buildings will be constructed. Piped water from the main pipe to Shinyanga municipal is available at the village extension pipe to the school. The water table in the area is very high and the school Administration may sink one or two wells to supplement the schools water supply. Bushushu village is within Kambarage ward, Shinyanga Rural District in Shinyanga Municipal. 4.5 Project Area The total area made available to Agape Love Education Centre is about eight (8) hectares and this will be used for the constructions of buildings, basketball, netball court, football pitch, short put, high jump, long green areas and gardens land is not a problem around the area and if the school will need more land it will have to apply for such land and it will not be difficult at all to be allocated such land. 4.6 Project summary ` 4.6.1 Problem statement The project is in line with government efforts to establish as many pre-schools, primary schools and secondary schools as possible so that many children get access to education. Quality basic education is very important to even the poor children. People of Tanzania constitutes empowerment; and it is one of the tools that will empower the country in different aspects of the war against poverty (Refer to Education and Training policy of 1995) 4.6.2 Priority need The priority need of this project proposal is to have an education institution which will join hand with the ministry of educations effort of having a nation with high level of education at all levels; a nation which produces the quality and quantity of educated people sufficiently equipped with the requisite knowledge to solve the societys problems in order to meet the challenges of development and attain competitiveness at regional and global at large at affordable costs. 4.6.3 Project objectives `This project proposal has two main objectives as mentioned here under: To respond to the needs of a rapidly growing business and education sector in Shinyanga municipality by producing the quality and quantity of educated people sufficiently equipped with the requisite knowledge to solve the societys problems in order to meet the challenges of development and attain competitiveness at regional and global at large at affordable costs. The following objectives will be implemented after getting approval from the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training. . The School will provide subsidized healthy meals daily to children attending this Centre School. This Centre will continue to raise funds for running the operation of the school by requesting sponsorship for educating the children attending this centre. 4.6.4 Target group The target groups of this project proposal are: The children who currently attend normal Kindergarten, Primary School and Secondary school, as well as the children living in Shinyanga community who need to improve their education level; The teachers who instruct the children according to the Syllabus provided by the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training; The supporting administrative and ancillary staff who will facilitate the operation of the school. Parents and guardians in the Shinyanga community who are interested in giving their children the opportunity of education at this education centre. 4.6.5 Project results This project is planned to be constructed at a minimum low cost so as to enable Tanzania community afford to pay the required fees. Construction will be conducted in three phases as follows: Phase one will start in year one, focusing on construction of pre- primary school and other necessary planned buildings. Phase two will follow year two for aiming for construction of primary school class rooms with other necessary planned buildings and phase three will start year four for construction of secondary school class rooms. 4.6.6 Key project activities Key project of Centre will include field activities, building design and construction supervision. All of which will be undertaken by M/s JKM MULTI-CONSULT TANZANIA LTD as a consultant to ensure that costs are not escalated. Some other activities will include: title Deed follow – up, topographical survey, master plan preparation. It will also involve location position of buildings. Streets, green areas, open spaces, play grounds etc. Location positioning of storm water, foul water, sewage system in relation to septic tank and sock pits. Setting out dimensions will involve building lines, setbacks and detailed dimensions between one building and the other. Architectural designs and preliminary stages stage 1 The drawing at this stage will have no detailed dimensions, they will just show schedules of accommodation for ease of getting rough estimated figures of the costs of the project. Working drawing –stage 2 These are details design for construction purposes and preparation of bills of quantities. Engineering design- these are of two types. Structural engineers designs- these are applicable for stored building and are used for soil investigation and foundation engineering. Electrical engineering drawings- these show the layout of electrical fitting and appliances especially for laboratories, computers etc Bills of quantities- these showing detailed breakdowns of materials required for every building and these may be used as tender documents in cases of building contracts. Landscaping Architecture and environmental control- this will ensure beautiful and attractive surroundings through the planting of flower gardens and shade trees. Items (3) through to (10) are some of the activities and services to be performed or carried out by the consultants and will be charged ten percent (10%) of estimated total construction costs as follows:- 4.6.7 Summary of areas built up 1. Secondary School 9,337.0 M2 2. Local Church 1,336.0 M2 3. Primary School 7,306.0 M2 4. Sports Arena 21,578.9 M2 Cost estimates per area. Based upon Unit Cost Method per m2, the following rates have been used:- (i) Secondary School @ Tshs 235,000/= per m2 (ii) Local Church @ Tshs 250,000/= per m2 (iii) Primary School @ Tshs 235,000/= per m2 (iv) Sports Arena @ Tshs 15,000/= per m2 Value per area. 1. Secondary School 2,194,195,000 Tshs 2. Local Church 334,000,000 Tshs 3. Primary School 1,716,910,000 Tshs 4. Sports Arena 323,683,500 Tshs Total 4,568,788,500 Tshs Add: 30% Infrastructures 1,507,700,205.00 10% Consultancy Fees 456,878,850.00 Total Construction Costs Shs 6,533,367,555.00 Other operational costs 1,031,632,445.00 Grand Total Costs 7,565,000,000.00 4.6.8 Project Feasibility study This covers all aspects of the project, describing in details all activities and finances involved. (Refer Annex No. I) 4.6.9 Project budgets In our project this will be our projection of source of income and our plan how are we going to spend this limited resources as expenses over a specified period of time. (Refer Annex No.1) 4.6.10 Project duration The project proposal duration will be for five years which will be preceded with final evaluations that will be conducted at the end of five years. This evaluation intends to make an extensive review of the whole project to see its sustainability for its the long run. 5.0 PROJECT RATIONALE 5.1 Background 5.1.1 Involvement and Experience The project will involve different stakeholders in the whole process of construction aiming to assist its implementations. These will include: Tanzania Building Agency for examining the Architectural designs part of the whole project. Tanzania Ministry of Education for monitoring the whole project and issue license. M/s JKM Multi-Consult Tanzania Ltd a consultant firm for supervision of the project. The society of Shinyanga municipality as stake holders for their children. The sponsors from Postal Bank Tanzania LTD Project team 5.1.2 Experience M/S JKM MULTI-CONSULT TANZANIA LDT. This is a consultant firm whose offices are situated at Kibaha Mailimoja. It is a new firm recently registered with the registrar of companies under the Companies Ordinance (cap 212), but its staffs are backed up with vast experience in the building design and construction industry as well as projects planning; project appraisal and financial management acquired while working with other firm. 5.1.3 Consultation and participation The project has also involved some experts especially for works like, conducting project feasibility study, design and drawings, buildings constructions, risk analysis, project evaluation etc. For instance, buildings constructions have been undertaken by M/S JKM MULTI-CONSULT TANZANIA LTD. This is a firm of consults whose offices are situated at Kibaha Mailimoja. It is a new firm recently registered with the registrar of companies under the Companies Ordinance (cap 212), but its staffs are backed up with vast experience in the building design and construction industry as well as projects planning; project appraisal and financial management acquired while working with other firm:- 5.1.4 Policies or development strategy This school centre is aiming to be the leading centre academically, socially, environmentally in the country. For this centre to meet these goals some policies and strategies have been put in place. Some of them include: to recruit skilled and experienced teaching staff and non teaching staff, to have in job training plan for all workers, to motivate all workers whose performance in every speciality will be excellent and to continue revising different policies wherever possible for the purpose of improvement etc. 5.1.5 Project approach 5.1.5.1 Goals The project goal is mainly for the construction of buildings for the pre-school, primary school and secondary school for the purpose of providing education. The buildings will cater for learning and boarding requirement of all pupils and students; plus the accommodation requirements of the teachers other school staff. The students and pupils physical fitness requirements will be met by having a sports arena in the school and grounds. ` 5.1.5.2 Objective and output The main objective is to respond to the needs of a rapidly growing business and education sector in Shinyanga municipality by producing the quality and quantity of educated people sufficiently equipped with the requisite knowledge to solve the societys problems in order to meet the challenges of development and attain competitiveness at regional and global at large at affordable costs. This will be met by having Agape Love Education Centre in place. 5.1.5.3 Main activities The main activities and cost estimate involved are summarized below as:- Project Capital Costs. Project costs are divided into various types namely: investment costs which fall into several categories: Buildings construction costs These are costs incurred in the construction of school buildings and infrastructure. Total construction costs T.shs 4,568,788,500/= Add: infrastructure 30% T. shs 1,507,700,205/= Add: 10% consultancy fees T. shs 456,878,850/= Total costs T. shs 6,533,367,555/= Office Furniture and equipment costs. These are furniture and equipment which will be purchased to furnish the schools. Offices furnish and equipment will be purchased in phases as more classes and offices are constructing red to completion. No definite phasing has been put in place because the phasing will depend on availability of funds. Total costs to purchase furniture and equipment stand at T. shs 168,930,000/=. Laboratory Equipment costs Every secondary school worth the name must have facilities for laboratories where laboratory equipments are a necessity. Agape Love Education Secondary school will have Biology laboratory, Physics laboratory and Chemistry laboratory which will be equipped appropriately. Biology laboratory equipment T.shs 12,000,000/= Chemistry laboratory equipment T.shs 18,000,000/= Physics laboratory equipment T.shs 20,000,000/= Total costs T.shs 50,000,000/= Purchase of school Van 31/4 tons A van will have to be bought for the school so as to cater for all transport requirements of the school. Purchase of Van 31/4 tons year five will cost T.shs 22,000,000/= Purchases of washing machine This will cater for washing all the school bed sheets etc T.shs 693,500/= Other costs are for the purchase of furniture and Equipment estimated at TSH 168,930,000/= Laboratory equipment for Physics, Chemistry and Biology laboratories will cost about TSH 50,000,000/= Total Capital costs Shs. 6,807,105,985/= 6.0 PROJECT APPARAISAL AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS 6.1 Project Appraisal   Business dictionary defined project appraisal as a systematic and comprehensive review of the economic, environmental, financial, social, and technical and other such aspects of a project to determine if it will meet its objectives. 6.2 Operational necessity Every project proposal should pass through this criterion for appraisal. In our education centre, this analysis will assist to determine the merit and acceptability of our school centre in accordance with under laid established criteria. This will be the final step before our project is accepted for financing. It helps us know that our project is feasible against the situation on the ground that the objectives set remain appropriate and that costs are reasonable. 6.3Project appraisal methods 6.3.1Social appraisal A social appraisal will help us review the project design and the process of project identification by implementing and monitoring its progress, from a social perspective. Particular attention will be paid to the likely impact of the project on different stakeholders, their opportunities for participation, and the projects contribution to poverty reduction. 6.3.2 Institutional appraisal This will help us ensures that the supporting institutions are in place and that they can operate effectively within the existing legislative and policy environment. This project has identified opportunities for institutional strengthening and capacity building at a relative cost. 6.3.3 Economic and financial appraisal This helped our project to make an analysis of economic soundness of the project and quantification and valuation of costs and benefits that ensured our financial viability. 6.3.4 Environmental appraisal The plan was made to invite the government specialists in environmental appraisal Environmental Assessment (EA) will assist us to meet one of our goals of having a school centre with a conducive academic environment. Most countries have environment impact assessment (EIA) policy and supporting legislation. Traditionally, EIA will be designed to operate at our project level to help us identify impacts and mitigation measures for this project. 6.3.5 Technical appraisal Technically, this project is going to be feasible as Shinyanga municipal is highly populated. During the time of conducting technical appraisal, a comprehensive review of all technical aspects of the project such as rendering judgment on merits of technical proposals and operating costs will be clearly seen. Some of a checklist that will be used is: To prove or test the technology that will be used to implement the entire tasks. To have a list of equipment and machinery to be installed with their cost and specifications. To know the equipment capacity and whether it is as per requirement etc. 6.3.5 Project Sensitivity analysis Sensitivity analysis will be done in our project to help us determine which variables have the most potential to affect this project. These variables include: task duration,  Ã‚   task start time, and success rate and costs risks. 7.0 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PLAN Activity plan 7.1.1Project activities Here under are estimated activities that will be carried out in a specified estimated period of time. S/NO Activities Year 1 Year2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 1 Fund solicitation 2 Buildings constructions 3 Purchase of office furniture 4 Laboratory equipment 5 Purchase of school van 6 Pupils registration 7 Risk analysis 8 Monitoring and evaluation 9 Budget preparation 10 School registration process 11 Recruitment of non and teaching staff 7.1.2 Management arrangement 7.1.2.1 Project personnel In every project human resource is very important to ensure that tasks are performed as planned. This includes project manager and project team. 7.1.2.1Individual roles In our project, every project team member will have a certain role assigned to perform at a specified period of time so as to accomplish our goal. 7.1.2.2 Communication mechanisms In our project this mechanism will help Create a document showing the needs to be kept informed about the project and how they will receive the information. The most common mechanism is a weekly or monthly progress report, describing how the project is performing, milestones achieved and work planned for the next period. 7.1.2.3 Project timing and scheduling In carrying out project tasks resources have been allocated to meet activities scheduled so as meet the allocated time. This ha been helped us to determine schedule dates on which activities should be performed this goes hand by hand with resource scheduling. This involves many considerations such as logistics and customer needs. 7.1.2.4 Project budget According to Dr. Magigi Mwaitete lecture notice, a budget is a financial plan that is prepared and approved prior to the budget period and may show income, expenditure and the capital to be employed. A budget may be for the business as a whole departments function such as sales and production. 7.1.2.5 Project financial report 7.1.2.5.1 Balance sheet Atrill McLaney (2008) defined a balance sheet as a statement of financial position that show the assets of a business and the claims on those assets (Refer Table 6) 7.1.2.5.2 Income statement According to Atrill McLaney (2008) Income statement is a statement that measures and reports the profit or loss the business has generated during a period. It is derived by deducting from total revenue for a period, the total expenses associated with that revenue. (Refer Table 7) 7.1.2.5.3 Cash flow statement According to Burke (2008) Cash flow statement is a document which models the flow of money in and out of the project reported in a monthly basis. (Refer Table 5) 7.1.2.6 Project monitoring and evaluation 7.1.2.6.1 Monitoring According to Choudhury S (2004) monitoring is referred to as checking how much has been done and what needs to be done for accomplishments of the project tasks. 7.1.2.6.2 Evaluation Ngailo (2007) defined project evaluation as systematic investigative information that help determine whether the project is proceeding as planned and is meeting the stated programme goals and project objectives according to the proposed timeline. 8.0 PROJECT RISK ANALYSIS 8.1 Rationale of project risks analysis According to Dr. Magigi Mwaitete Lacture notice. a risk is defined as an uncertain event which should it occur, will have an effect on the project meeting its objectives. The rationale of project risk analysis is to reduce the probability and impact of threats and to increase the probability of opportunities and/or their positive impact. 8.2 Typical source of project risks In most likely any project may be faced by some of these risks: Legal (patents and lawsuits), changes in technology (does your software project need to support Windows Vista?), natural hazards and conditions (have you seen the latest volcano news?), eenvironmental (does a protected or rare species lie in your freeway path?) 8.3 Countermeasures for project risks In our project we have looked at this part critically from the planning stage. Under this part we carried out the quantitative analysis by involving different experts brainstorming with them, and consulting other skilled people to ensure that we review a history of our project where necessary to make the proper judgments. As a result we listed some risks prioritized by probability and impact for us to avoid, ignore, or accommodate different impacts likely to happen. 9.0 CONCLUSION The Agape Love Education Center continues to demonstrate its commitment to the development of Shinyanga region by submitting this five year project proposal document for approval and in so doing it continues to fulfil one of the objectives of the Ministry of Education and Vocation Training of participating in the development of the population of Shinyanga region and the rest of the regions. The Agape School centre aims to make many children in the Shinyanga community for the coming five years feel happy by providing a high standard of education in particular for pre-school, primary school, secondary school, and high school.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Mcdonald’s Strategic Management Globalization Strategy

Example 1 Localization strategy of McDonald's McDonald is using localization strategy in term of choose to localize the language that they use to sell the items especially burger and tries to localize the food itself, localization is absolutely necessary to attract customers across nations. One of the examples is McDonald’s localization of its food menu. u. Even though the menu is to a certain degree standardized all over the world, but some of items are unique to each country and that taste also localize of the local market.The burger that prepared by McDonald’s well known in all over world. In Japan customer can order a â€Å"koroke† burger that which contains katsu sauce, cabbage and mashed potato. In Hong Kong, customers can find a burger that is served between rice cakes not in sesame seed buns. In Malaysia, McDonald customers have much choice such beef burger, chicken burger and fish burger. McDonald provided chicken. Some of religious group do not prefer t o take beef so McDonald provided chicken and fish burger for them.More than that, McDonald in Malaysia do not provide pig meat burger because majority of Malaysia don’t not take pork and would also be upsetting for religious. In India the type of burger totally different from other country because eating beef is against to religious rules. McDonald's brand is strongly associated with hamburgers, but McDonald open vegetarian restaurants that provide vegetarian burgers. International strategy In the India market McDonald's accepted the international strategy over franchising to push their main competencies and to customize their goods and service according to the demand of local customers.This way the business be sure of on local subsidiaries in India to follow the rules and regulations of running McDonald's and make sure the goods and service must be standardizing. McDonald to complete standardization within an international scale is difficult because of Indian market is more traditionally diverse. McDonald's standardizes as much as can to make less costs, but they are conscious of cultural differences and have to accepted the perception of â€Å"think global, act local† (Hill, 2009).The subsidiaries provided by international strategy with some freedom, but the main controls belong to with managers at the center of operations in America. The subsidiaries provided by international strategy with some freedom, but the main controls belong to with managers at the center of operations in America. The Indian subsidiaries are approved the power to plan, make and market innovative products that directly respond to the local customers' preferences According to Hindu population cow is worshipped so McDonald’s does not use beef to prepare burger.In India McDonalds fully removed beef for pork for Muslims customers. As a replacement for of the ever-popular Big Macs set up in the west, McDonald's in India serves â€Å"Maharaja Macs â€Å" that contain mutton and some vegetarian rice pies. McDonald's is required to change and adapt their goods and service to local customer demand because the India customers have different favorites due to traditional and religious differences. More than that, in foreign countries there have local food for consumer while McDonalds is among one of the traditionally American fast food.McDonalds able to maintain the local tastes on condition that it focuses on its main competency of fast food. In Europe, from fast foot roots McDonalds unfortunately straying. In strength to compete like Starbucks, McDonald’s is turn-off the restaurant space extra upscale and easy, while offering in good health and more locally tasty foods. McDonalds also offering rental iPods and Wi-Fi available for customers. However, this strategy not only reduces the product fair play by get used to local tastes, but also changes McDonalds even additional away from its main competitors of fast food

Friday, January 10, 2020

“On Dumpster Diving” by Lars Eighne Essay

In two particular essays I have read, On Dumpster Diving by Lars Eighner and, A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift, I noticed that the authors write about the concern they have for the unfortunate people in their countries. They also provide abnormal means of resolving the issue of poverty. The essay by Lars Eighner describes his experiences with Dumpsters and Dumpster diving. He then specifically informs the readers about how to look for food that is acceptable to eat. The author also tells of the different classifications of people that use Dumpster diving as means of providing food and material items. Next, the essay by Jonathan Swift states a proposal that would have small children and babies being cooked and served to the people of Ireland. The author goes into great detail on the cooking process, uses terms meant for cows (breed and cattle), and provides calculations for determining the number of children that would be expendable. Although the essay was satirical in meaning and aimed at the English government, it displayed a not so modest proposal for a reaction to Irelands problem. The one thing I found in both of the essays was that the reaction to the problem deviated from normality. Both of the essays displayed extreme ways of dealing with being poor and helped to provide a solution that was abstract. In the essay by Lars Eighner he explains that, Dumpster diving is outdoor work, often surprisingly pleasant. Yet in spite of the element of change, scavenging more than most pursuits tends to yield returns in some proportion to the effort and intelligence brought to bear. ThePuckett 2author further writes that he thinks of scavenging as a modern form of self-reliance and states that the work rewards initiative and effort refreshing. Although it was a way of survival for Lars Eighner and a solution to the poverty he was facing, it is definitely not a normal way of life for the general population. I speculate that most people would not find the method of Dumpster diving pleasant, rewarding, or refreshing (unless of course someone found something of actual decent value or use). As I have said, Lars Eighner gives three principles for eating safely from Dumpsters. The author writes, Eating safely from the Dumpsters involves three principles: using the senses and common sense to evaluate the condition of the found materials, knowing the Dumpsters of a given area and checking them regularly, and seeking always to answer the question Why was this discarded?. He writes this as giving instruction to those who might eventually need this skill or to those that feel so inclined to go Dumpster diving anyway. He gives in great detail the things you must look for on different kinds of food. For example the author writes, Canned goods are among the safest of foods to be found in Dumpsters, but are not utterly foolproof. All canned goods should contain a slight vacuum and suck air when punctured. Candy, especially hard candy, is usually safe if it has not drawn ants. Candying after all is one method of food preservation because pathogens do not like very sugary substances. By stating these guidelines, he provides the solution (Dumpster diving) for the problem of being poor and not having any sustenance. Indeed the most abnormal resolution to a countries poverty problem could be found in the essay, A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift. The author proposed in this essay that small children of at least a year old would be the earliest that they be cooked and eaten before theyPuckett 3become a burden to the rest of the country. Jonathan Swift writes, a child just dropped from its dam may be supported by her milk for a solar year, with little nourishment; at most not above the value of two shillings, which the mother may certainly get, or the value in scraps, by her lawful occupation of begging; and it is exactly at one year that I propose to provide for them in such a manner as instead of being a charge upon their parents or the parish, or wanting food and raiment for the rest of their lives, they shall on the contrary contribute to the feedingof thousands. The author goes on to say that this proposal would also prevent voluntary abortions due to the expense, rather than the shame. The a uthor further writes about calculating the number of children that are born and live, or die from accident and disease. Jonathan Swift also states how they can use the skin from the children for  gloves and boots and gives cooking instructions. The author wrote Those who are more thrifty (as I must confess the times require) may flay the carcass; the skin which artificially dressed will make admirable gloves for ladies, and summer boots for fine gentleman. The author then writes that it would be better to buy the children live and dress them from the knife as you would do roasting pigs. These statements, although cannibalistic, show how Jonathan Swift satirically proposed this essay toward the people of Ireland and the English government. Trying to understand how Jonathan Swift would view scavenging, without irony, is not that easy. Just from the essay I read it is hard to distinguish how he would actually feel about Dumpster diving. If I had to guess, I would say that he would think that it is a disgrace to the people of his country. I could hear him saying something like, To see our fellow people, digging through rubbish, tearing up our town with their filthy hands, is absurd; it should not have to come to messing up our streets and causing disorder to find sustenance. Although, if thePuckett 4author was talking about the United States in the same context he referred to the American in his essay, he might view scavenging a little differently. Jonathan Swift stated, I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricassee or a ragout. This statement hints at the cannibalistic and animal nature that he viewed Americans as. Using this statement and my assumption, I would say that he would view scavenging as a disgusting, animalistic way to find food. In conclusion, the two essays I have wrote about express concern for the poverty issues in their country and make a proposal for a solution to that problem. In the essay by Lars Eighner, he provides a realistic approach by Dumpster diving to finding sustenance when he was poor. On the other hand, Jonathan Swifts essay proposes an unrealistic approach to the problem of being poor cooking and eating small children which is not something that could even be considered back then or today. Considering both of these essays, the authors proposed a solution from the influence of the specific  time, country, and government making each reaction different. Sources: Life Studies: An Analytical Reader Seventh EditionAuthor: David Cavitch

Thursday, January 2, 2020

All About Escape Literature

As the name suggests, so-called escape literature is written for entertainment, and to let the reader become totally immersed in a fantasy or alternate reality. Much of this kind of literature falls into the guilty pleasure category (think romance novels). But there is a wide variety of different literary genres that could be labeled as escapist: science fiction, westerns, magical realism, even historical fiction. Its worth noting that just because something can be categorized as escape literature doesnt necessarily mean it doesnt have higher literary value. Why Escape Literature Is Popular Its not difficult to understand why escape literature, in all its formats, is well-liked. Being able to immerse oneself in a fictional reality, where troubles and problems are easily recognized and solved, is a comfort provided by movies, books and other forms of entertainment. Truly good works of escape literature create a believable alternate universe, whose inhabitants struggle with dilemmas that the reader might encounter. Its a crafty way to explore moral and ethical themes within an entertaining framework. Examples of Escape Literature The most compelling escapist literature includes works that describe characters in an entirely new, fictional universe. J.R.R. Tolkiens  The Lord of the Rings trilogy is an example of a canonical literature series, complete with its own history and completely made-up languages, that follows elves, dwarves and humans through a mythical quest to save their world. In the series, Tolkien  explores the themes of right versus wrong and how small acts of bravery can be significant. He also pursued his fascination with linguistics by developing new languages such as Elvish for the majestic elves in the stories. Of course, there are plenty of examples of escape literature that are little more than pop culture entertainment. And thats fine too, just as long as students of the genre can differentiate between the two. When Escapism Is Just Entertainment The Twilight series by Stephenie Meyer, which grew into a massive movie franchise with a cult following is a good example of lowbrow escapist literature. Its themes of love and romance between a vampire and a human (who happens to be friends with a werewolf) is a thinly-veiled religious allegory, but not exactly a canonical work. Still, the appeal of Twilight  is undeniable: the series was a top seller in both its book and movie forms.  is undeniable: the series was a top seller in both its book and movie forms. Another popular fantasy series often compared with the Twilight books, is theHarry Potter series by J.K. Rowling (although the quality of the latter is generally considered superior). While some may argue that Harry Potter is an example of interpretive literature, which compels a deeper exploration of the real world through literary themes, its themes of magical workings in a school for wizards offers an escape from reality. Difference Between Escapist and Interpretive Literature Escape literature is frequently discussed alongside interpretive literature, and at times the line between the two genres becomes a little blurry. Interpretive literature seeks to help readers understand deeper questions of life, death, hate, love, sorrow and other elements of human existence. While interpretive literature can be equally as entertaining as its cousin escape, in general, the goal is to bring readers closer to understanding reality. Escape literature wants to take us away from reality, immersing us in a whole new world (but often with the same old problems).

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Should Marijuana Be Legalized Essay - 1372 Words

Legalization of Weed Growing up, everyone is told that, â€Å"Drugs are bad for you,† time and time again. Now as a kid you don’t really understand the reasoning behind it, but you listen to your authority figure regardless. I remember being told this my entire life and even to this very day. But as I got older I realized that people would still use drugs even though it’s illegal. I could never understand why someone would go against the law and jeopardize their life just to use drugs? The drug that I am talking about is marijuana, and surprisingly it is all around us. Marijuana is even referred to in today’s media Mainstream media sources that people enjoy, like music, movies, and TV shows, do not even bother to leave the drug out of their system. Now being a young adult and having my own personal experience with the drug and knowing its effects on others, I wonder why it’s not legal. Why is it that this drug has become illegal all over the world? The debate t o legalize marijuana in the United States of America has been fought over nonstop since the existence of the drug. Marijuana has been tested and proven to provide a very positive impact on the American society for many reasons. Some of these reasons are for America’s economy, health and even crime. These reasons could very well help America thrive in the future and that is why Marijuana should be legalized in the United States of America. This naturally found plant known as marijuana is recognized all around theShow MoreRelatedShould Marijuana Be Legalized?849 Words   |  4 Pageswhether marijuana should be legalized. Around 23 states have legalized marijuana for medical and recreational use. In the state of Illinois, medicinal use of marijuana has been passed on April 17, 2013. Since January 2014, patients are able to obtain marijuana with a doctor s recommendation. The new debate is whether marijuana should be legalized for the general public as a recreational drug. Although some believe that marijuana is harmless, and that it has beneficial medicinal uses, marijuana shouldRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1715 Words   |  7 PagesMarijuana in Society Cannabis, formally known as marijuana is a drug obtained from the tops, stems and leaves of the hemp plant cannabis. The drug is one of the most commonly used drugs in the world. Only substances like caffeine, nicotine and alcohol are used more (â€Å"Marijuana† 1). In the U. S. where some use it to feel â€Å"high† or get an escape from reality. The drug is referred to in many ways; weed, grass, pot, and or reefer are some common names used to describe the drug (â€Å"Marijuana† 1). Like mostRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1489 Words   |  6 Pagescannabis plant or marijuana is intended for use of a psychoactive drug or medicine. It is used for recreational or medical uses. In some religions, marijuana is predominantly used for spiritual purposes. Cannabis is indigenous to central and south Asia. Cannabis has been scientifically proven that you can not die from smoking marijuana. Marijuana should be legalized to help people with medical benefits, econo mic benefits, and criminal benefits. In eight states, marijuana was legalized for recreationalRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1245 Words   |  5 PagesMarijuana is a highly debatable topic that is rapidly gaining attention in society today.   Legalizing marijuana can benefit the economy of this nation through the creation of jobs, increased tax revenue, and a decrease in taxpayer money spent on law enforcement.   Ã‚  Many people would outlaw alcohol, cigarettes, fast food, gambling, and tanning beds because of the harmful effects they have on members of a society, but this is the United States of America; the land of the free and we should give peopleRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1010 Words   |  5 PagesThe legalization of marijuana became a heated political subject in the last few years. Twenty-one states in America have legalized medical marijuana. Colorado and Washington are the only states where marijuana can be purchased recreationally. Marijuana is the high THC level part of the cannabis plant, which gives users the â€Å"high† feeling. There is ample evidence that supports the argument that marijuana is beneficial. The government should legalize marijuana recreationally for three main reasonsRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1231 Words   |  5 Pagesshows the positive benefits of marijuana, it remains illegal under federal law. In recent years, numerous states have defied federal law and legalized marijuana for both recreational and medicinal use. Arizona has legalized marijuana for medical use, but it still remains illegal to use recreationally. This is absurd, as the evidence gathered over the last few decades strongly supports the notion that it is safer than alcohol, a widely available substance. Marijuana being listed as a Schedule I drugRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1350 Words   |  6 Pagespolitics in the past decade would have to be the legalization of marijuana. The sale and production of marijuana have been legalized for medicinal uses in over twenty states and has been legalized for recreational uses in seven states. Despite the ongoing support for marijuana, it has yet to be fully legalized in the federal level due to cultural bias against â€Å"pot† smoking and the focus over its negative effects. However, legalizing marijuana has been proven to decrease the rate of incrimination in AmericaRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1145 Words   |  5 PagesLegalizing Marijuana Marijuana is a drug that has been actively used for centuries. This drug can be traced back to 2737 BC by the Chinese emperor Shen Nung. He spoke about the euphoric effects of Cannabis and even referred to it as the â€Å"Liberator of Sin.† Since early on, marijuana was seen as a medicinal plant that was recommended for medical uses. Marijuana is currently in schedule I, which means that physicians are not allowed to prescribe it in the United States (Hart, Ksir 2013). This drugRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?997 Words   |  4 PagesLegalize It: The Benefits of Legalizing Marijuana Should marijuana be legalized? Many Americans have been asked this question or have heard some type of news about the issue. Marijuana is commonly known as cannabis which refers to the dried up hemp plant cannabis sativa, even though marijuana is a plant and has no chemical additives it has been a tropic of controversy for many years but nowadays it is in the spotlight more than ever. For centuries, marijuana has been used by people throughout theRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized? Essay1457 Words   |  6 PagesSHOULD MARIJUANA BE LEGALIZED? Marijuana is a drug that has sparked much controversy over the past decade as to whether or not it should be legalized. People once thought of marijuana as a bad, mind-altering drug which changes a person’s personality which can lead to crime and violence through selling and buying it. In the past, the majority of citizens believed that marijuana is a harmful drug that should be kept off the market and out of the hands of the public. However, a recent study conducted

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Slave Resistance - 1895 Words

Abstract Since the beginning of the transatlantic slave trade, captured Africans thought and plotted of ways to resist their bondage. After landing in America enslaved Africans resisted slavery in many forms; some of these were passive while others were more outright and violent. This essay will discuss forms of resistance used by slaves during their journey to America, as well as common forms of resistance slaves used while living on plantations. These forms of resistance were running away, slave revolts, and subtle day to day resistance. Regardless of the form of resistance used, slaves were not content living a life of bondage and used all means available to resist no matter the consequence. The transition into a life of slavery†¦show more content†¦Deep down the slave owners lived in the constant fear of the slaves rebelling against their lives in bondage. Slaveholders understood that as long as slavery existed so too would resistance. This is one of the reasons why slaveholders tried to improve the material conditions of the slaves. The above forms of resistance were more noticeable and sometimes violent, however, slave also resisted in subtle ways. These were known as day to day resistance. Slaves were often considered lazy and dumb by their slave owners. The image of the African slave in the Americas has left a lasting perception that all slaves were docile and eager to assimilate to the culture of their captives. The stereotypical image of a slave was that of a lazy, easy going, childlike, irresponsible, helpless, smiling, shiftless, dancing, and senseless singing slave who was content with his life as a servant. This image has transcended decades. It was b elieved that the typical African slave in the Americas did not rebel against their oppressors. This could not be further from the truth, but slaves often used this stereotype to their advantage often to get out of work and punishment. Small acts of resistance though dangerous were regular events in slave communities. â€Å"The slightest command could be wrongly interpreted or carelesslyShow MoreRelatedEssay on Slavery - Slave Resistance1173 Words   |  5 Pagescomplete myth. Most slaves were dissatisfied with their stations in life, and longed to have the right of freedom. Their owners were acutely conscious of this fact and went to great lengths to prevent slave uprisings from occurring. An example of a drastic measure would be the prohibition of slaves receiving letters. They were also not allowed to converge outside church after services, in hopes of stopping conspiracy. Yet the slaves still managed to fight back. 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